7 Great Websites for Writers

Here is a reprint of an article I thought people might find useful.  Some of the entries are obvious, but a couple were new to me a thought it was worth a reprint.  It was orginally published on http://www.dailywritingtips.com/ 

7 Great Websites for Writers

by Mark Nichol

From usual suspects to obscure gems, from grammar guides to usage resources, here are some websites of great value to writers:

1. Amazon.com 

You may have heard of this website — a good place, I understand, to find books (or anything else manufactured). But what I appreciate even more is the “Search inside this book” link under the image of the book cover on most pages in the Books section. No longer does one need to own a book or go to a bookstore or a library to thumb through it in search of that name or bon mot or expression you can’t quite remember. And even if you do have access to the book in question, it’s easier to search online (assuming you have a keyword in mind that’s proximal in location or locution to your evasive prey) than to try to remember on what part of what page in what part of the book you remember seeing something last week or last month or years ago. And then, of course, there are the site’s “Frequently Bought Together” and “Customers Who Bought This Item Also Bought” features — but the book search can be a writer’s salvation.

2. Banned for Life 

Newspaper editor Tom Mangan’s site lists reader contributions of clichés and redundancies.

3. The Chicago Manual of Style Online

My review on this site of The Chicago Manual of Style notes that buying the bulky book, despite its abundance of useful information, is overkill for writers (but not editors), but editorial professionals of all kinds will benefit from the CMOS website’s Style Q&A feature, which responds authoritatively, sensibly, and often humorously to visitors’ queries.

4. GrammarBook.com 

The late Jane Straus, author of The Blue Book on Grammar and Punctuation, created this site to promote her book, but it also features many simple grammar lessons (with quizzes), as well as video lessons, an e-newsletter, and blog entries that discuss various grammar topics.

5. The Phrase Finder 

A useful key to proverbs, phrases from the Bible and Shakespeare, nautical expressions, and American idiom (the site originates in the United Kingdom), plus a feature called “Famous Last Words” and, for about $50 a year, subscription to a phrase thesaurus. (Subscribers include many well-known media companies and other businesses as well as universities.)

6. The Vocabula Review 

The Principal Web Destination for Anyone Interested in Words and Language

Essays about language and usage; $25 per year by email, $35 for the print version.

7. The Word Detective 

Words and Language in a Humorous Vein on the Web Since 1995

This online version of Evan Morris’s newspaper column of the same name (some were also published in the book The Word Detective) features humorous Q&A entries about word origins.

 

 

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So, you want to write a good paragraph

Most authors write a paragraph and really don’t think about it. The bottom line is that is how it should be (Automatic, to the point, clear and complete). But, what are the characteristics of a good paragraph? That is what we will talk about in this blog.

A good paragraph should include a topic sentence, supporting ideas (usually 3 – 6) and of course RENNS (reasons, examples, names, numbers, senses). An optional concluding sentence can be added, which expresses the importance of the information in the paragraph. It may summarize the supporting ideas if the paragraph is long, or provides a transition to the next paragraph of the essay.
When you are writing a paragraph remember the word, “unity”. Basically this means that all sentences in the paragraph directly support the topic sentence. If you flood your reader with excess or misplaced information you will lose coherence. Always make sure that all the information of the paragraph is well-organized, logically ordered and easy to follow.

Process of Writing a Paragraph:

    1. Compose your topic sentence. Think of a topic that will fit well into one paragraph. If you have a broad topic break it into two or paragraphs and use a concluding sentence to transition between them.

 

  • List your supporting ideas. Choose 2 – 6 that do a good job supporting your topic sentence.

 

 

  • Write a topic outline. Don’t actually write sentences in the outline simply list the items you plan to talk about. Put them in the best or logical order.

 

 

  • For each supporting idea you have, go through select and list the RENNS that further explain the idea. For the perfect paragraph each supporting idea should have about the same number of RENNS.

 

 

  • This probably obvious but, you are now ready write your paragraph using real sentences.

 

 

  • Create a concluding sentence if needed.

 

Well, that is it in a nutshell. Everything you need to write the perfect paragraph for essays, technical works or just about anything. Oh course fiction writing and storytelling in general is a bit different, but mastering a good paragraph is still a fundamental skill that all writers must have.

 

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Comma-on Comma Usage!

I was recently editing a memoir for a client and I had some questions about comma usage. I found an article on the internet that explained everything I needed to know. I am constantly amazed how easy it is to get the information you need with just a few clicks of the mouse. I have decided to reprint the entire article here. To tell the truth, I did this mostly for me so I can have quick access.

-Ron

The Comma
A Reprint from: The Center for Writing Studies

http://www.cws.illinois.edu

The comma is important because it is the main device by which the grouping of words, phrases, and clauses is indicated. Consequently it is used, and unfortunately misused, more than all the other marks combined. Its use, however, is not haphazard. Competent writers almost always use commas for one of two purposes: to set off some element of the sentence from what precedes, what follows, or both, or else to separate two elements as they might be separated by a pause or rising inflection of the voice if one were speaking. The few uses that fall into neither of these categories are the arbitrary use of commas on certain specific occasions, to be pointed out below, and the insertion of a comma when its presence is necessary for the sake of clarity.

The rules that follow, though numbered consecutively throughout, are grouped in accordance with the uses referred to above:

Commas Used to Set Off

An appositive or a term of direct address is set off by commas:

The original factory, an old stone structure, is still standing.

An adverbial clause preceding its principal clause, or an adverbial phrase at the beginning of a clause, is usually set off by a comma:

On all floors except the second and the fourth, the fire hazards have been removed.

Note: If an adverbial clause or phrase is extremely short, and if omission of the comma could not cause confusion, the comma may be omitted. For example:

When he arrived he was immediately seated
During July the plant will be closed.

Independent elements, participial phrases, gerund phrases, and other such constructions at the beginning of a sentence are set off by commas:

No, the shipment has not yet arrived
Worried by the complaints, we began an investigation.

A conjunctive adverb (however, moreover, therefore, etc.) is usually set off by commas when it comes within the clause to which it applies. When it comes at the beginning of a clause, it may or may not be followed by a comma but will always be preceded by a period or semicolon:

His objection, therefore, was ignored -or- I had heard the rumor before; consequently, I did not believe it.

Any mildly parenthetical element is enclosed in commas if it seems desirable to set it apart from the rest of the sentence. A writer is called upon to use his own judgment in applying this rule, for too many commas will make a sentence jerky and hard to read:

The frame, he insisted, was too tight.

A term such as “namely” or “that is,” used to introduce an example or a list, is usually set apart from that example or list by a comma. (The mark that precedes such an expression depends on the sentence structure.)

Three species of tree were observed, namely, pine, fir, and cedar.

Nonrestrictive clauses are set off by commas. Restrictive clauses, however, are not set off:

The south side, which had been exposed to the sun, was badly faded.
He moved to Arizona, where the climate was not so moist.

Note: In these examples, the clauses introduced respectively by “which” and “where” merely add some additional facts. If they were omitted, the meaning of the remainder of the sentence would be unchanged. Hence they are nonrestrictive. However, some clauses introduced by “where” or “who” are restrictive. Each is used to limit–to restrict–the meaning of the main statement, which would be radically changed if the clause in question were omitted.

The roads went to pieces where the permafrost had been disturbed.
All motorists who drive recklessly should be fined heavily.

Sometimes a sentence does not make sense unless a clause is interpreted in a single way–restrictive or nonrestrictive. When this is true, an error in punctuation merely increases the difficulty of reading. There are times, however, when restrictive and nonrestrictive interpretations are equally reasonable. When this is the case, an error in punctuation leads a reader to misunderstand the meaning. Note how the meaning of the two sentences that follow depends on punctuation:

The people from Troy, who had come early, obtained seats.
The people from Troy who had come early obtained seats.

A word or phrase placed in an abnormal position in a sentence should be set off by a comma or commas:

To a trained accountant, the problem would look easy.

A direct quotation is set off by a comma or commas:

“The tires are threadbare,” he asserted, “and will blow out at any moment.”

Exceptions: A quotation that blends into the regular structure of the sentence is not set off by commas. A title in quotation marks is not set off by commas unless some other rule makes commas necessary:

The poet’s prophecy about “airy navies grappling in the central blue” has become an unpleasant reality.
The rhythm of “The Raven” is very striking.

Commas Used to Separate

A comma is ordinarily used between two independent clauses that are joined by a coordinating conjunction. The coordinating conjunctions are “and,” “but,” “for,” “or,” and “nor.” (“Yet” and “so” may also be treated as coordinating conjunctions when this rule is applied.)

The building is old, but it has been kept in good condition.

Note: When both clauses are extremely short and simple, the comma may be omitted:

It was damaged but it still is usable.

Note: If a comma is used within one or both of two independent clauses, the comma between them is sometimes replaced by a semicolon.

When a sentence contains a series, the elements in the series are normally separated by commas.

Cattle, sheep, and hogs are now selling for higher prices.

Note: If a comma is used within any element in a series, it is often better to use semicolons rather than commas between the elements:

We visited Paris, Cannes, and Avignon in France; Frankfurt, Bonn, and Berlin in Germany; and Madrid and Seville in Spain.

Note: Opinions differ over whether to use a comma before a conjunction (“and” or “or”) that precedes the last item in a series. In technical and scientific periodicals and in material published by the United States Government, use of the comma is predominant. In journalistic and popular publications, usage is divided. Sometimes a comma is essential for clarity because of “and” or “or” being used within one of the items. For example:

The panels were painted red, green, yellow, and black and white.

Without the comma after “yellow,” it would be impossible to know whether “black” belonged with “yellow” or with “white.” In view of this, it seems advisable to regard the comma as normal punctuation rather than trying to check each series to see whether a comma is needed for clarity.

Two or more adjectives preceding a noun are ordinarily separated by commas. (The comma before the last adjective is omitted, however, if that adjective is so closely associated with the noun that the two merge into a single thought unit.) Also, a comma is used between adverbs that modify the same object.

He has a modest, unassuming manner.
The watchman was a feeble old man.
Slowly, relentlessly, the stream wore away the dike.

Commas are variously used to separate items in dates, places, and numbers.

In dates: He was born on December 4, 1963, in Princeton.

In places and addresses: San Francisco, California, is an important shipping point.

To separate adjacent sets of figures: In 1950, 675 men were added to the payroll.

Between the digits of numbers: 10,984; 234,617; and 1,856,445.

Note: In many cases, the comma is omitted in a number with only four digits, unless the number occurs in a column containing numbers in which commas are used

Commas Used Arbitrarily

A comma is used between the last and the first name of a person when the last name appears first, and also after the first name unless the sentence structure calls for some other mark:

Please insert the name Fitzgerald, Duane, in the proper place in the alphabetical list.

A comma may be used whenever it is necessary to force a pause for the sake of clarity.

Inside, the building was in better condition.

 

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The Crazy Sounds of A Verses An – Can I scream now!?

I received an email from a listener of my podcast Ron’s Amazing Stories. He was criticizing my use of “an” verses “a”. I have always thought the usage was based on whether the next word in the sentence began with a vowel or a consonant. As it turns out it is a bit more complicated. Let’s look at an example:

John waited on the corner for an hour. While he waited a historic event occurred.

You will notice that, “an hour” works. Why is that? Well, it is because hour starts with a vowel sound. In the case of historic it uses the h sound and therefore uses an “a”. Yes, I am quite aware how crazy that sounds. Here is another example:

John was thinking about how he wants to work as a missionary. However, before he will do that he wants to get an MBA.

The letters o and m can be tough to determine usage for. The reason is the “o” can be used as a “w” like in the word “onetime”. So, the bottom line to this is simple. The rule whether to use “a” or “an” is actually determined by how the word is pronounced not the letter used.

 

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The Narrative Mode – An Editor’s Nightmare

In this article we are going to talk about the mode of narration. This is not a new subject, but it is most certainly misunderstood and in some cases misrepresented. I have seen hundreds of articles on the subject some are good and some, not so much. So, why would I add yet another to the mound? It is my hope that I can present a simplified point of view. No pun intended.

The narrative mode is simply the method an author uses to present a story to his audience. As long as you are consistent and persistent your readers will be able to follow you. However, picking your point of view can be tricky and is where writers get into the trouble. One way to represent this to think about a car accident. Let’s say you are driving down Main Street and you are t-boned by a jeep that just ran a red light. No one is hurt, but both vehicles are severely damaged. The police arrive on the scene and the first thing they have to do is to determine what happened. How do they do this? By questioning the witnesses of course. Now let’s say that there are three people that saw what happened. There was the driver of the jeep, a mailman and yourself. Each of person is going to have a point of view. Let’s begin with what you saw:

First Person

This is where you are the narrator and a character in the story. So, you will use phrases like, “I saw” or “We all looked”. In my opinion this is easiest way to tell a story, but does have its limitations. It is easy because you can focus one aspect of the tale at a time and it allows you stay focused. It is limited, because there is no possible way to convey the emotions or thoughts of another character in your story. In our accident I can tell the officer what I did, what I saw and nothing more. Anything that the driver of the jeep saw, did or didn’t do is out of my scope and has to be obtained from another source. For example, the officer may tell me what the other driver said. Typically first person accounts are not popular in fiction because of this limitation. However, the first person point of view is an excellent way to convey the deep, emotional or intense feelings of a character. The most common use of the first-person narration is as a story within a story. A character may stop and relate something that happened in the past that is relevant to the plot’s current situation.

Second Person

Second person narration is the rarest mode in literature. The basic concept is the storyteller refers to one of the characters as “you”, making the audience member feel like part of the story. Second person is often paired first person narration and makes emotional comparisons between the thoughts, actions, and feelings of “you” versus “I”. In our accident scene we can understand how this could work. For example you could tell the driver of the jeep what you saw him doing. Here is how it would sound: “I saw you driving down Main Street. You were looking down at the floor of your car trying to grab at something. You were totally oblivious to the fact that the signal light was red and that I was making a legal left turn.” I think you can understand why this narrative mode is very rare. It can lead to some very serious point of view errors and can make it difficult for a reader to follow your plot.

Third Person

Third-person narration provides the greatest flexibility to the author and is the most commonly used narrative mode in literature. In the third-person, each and every character is referred to as “he”, “she”, “it”, or “they”, but never as “I” or “we” or “you”. It is necessary that the narrator be merely an unspecified entity or uninvolved person that conveys the story, but not involved in any way with the events. The third-person modes are usually categorized along two axes. The first is between “subjective” and “objective” narration. Subjective will give a character’s feelings and thoughts, while “objective” narration does not describe any of those concepts. The second axis is between “omniscient” and “limited”, a distinction that refers to the knowledge of the characters available to the narrator. An omniscient narrator has unlimited knowledge of time, people, places and events. A limited narrator may know absolutely everything about a single character, but it is “limited” to that character. In our accident scenario the mailman’s report could be told in the third person. It would sound like this: “The man in the jeep was distracted. He was looking down at the floor of his rig and was not looking at signal. He failed to stop for the red light and plowed right into the other car. Both cars were severely damaged and the blame of the accident rest fully on the driver of the jeep.”

Can you tell which axis this? If you guessed Limited Objective you would be correct. There is a lot more to this we could talk about, but we will leave it here for now and revisit in more detail in future installments. If you are looking a great book on this subject take a look at: Writing Fiction: A Guide to Narrative Craft by Janet Burroway.

 

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Problem Words: Replacement words for story

One of the problems I run into all the time both here on the blog and over at Ron’s Amazing Stories is I am having to use the word “Story” a lot. I have tried to come use other words like tale, episode and such, but I am constantly getting stuck on this silly little word. So today I sat down with my word processor and found every word that suggests storytelling types or techniques.

Here is what I came up with:

Account: a retelling of an event or series of events, sometimes with a connotation of bias or at least subjectivity.
Anecdote: a short, entertaining story, which often involves the person telling it.
Allegory: a story that expresses ideas about human nature through the actions of the character undergoing a challenge.
Annals: a record of events, especially a yearly record, usually done in chronological order.
Chronicle: Basically the same as Annals.
Exemplum: an anecdote or similar story intended to provide a moral or argue a point. Also, a very cool word and by the way it is pronounced ig-zem-pluhm.
Fable: a story with supernatural or imaginary elements. It is often used to make an observation about human nature or present a moral.
Folktale: a tale originally passed down orally featuring vague or universal story elements.
Legend: a story that is significant to a culture and originally passed down as if it had actually occurred.
Myth: a commonly accepted or supposed factual account from the distant past that figuratively explains a cultural phenomenon. This includes Urban Legends and Folklore.
Narrative: a relation of factual or fictitious events. Also, spoken or written account of a series of connected events.
Parable: a short tale that a religious or moral principle.
Record: Again basically the same thing as annals.
Yarn: a story that is adventurous or humorous or both, and perhaps is a tall tale. Tall tales were common in the 19th century and are still considered today.

That is what I have come up with so far. Do you have one that I missed? Please help make this a complete list. I need more synonyms for the word story!

-Ron

 

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Brief guide: How to format a children’s book

I put this together for a client this past week and I thought I would post it here.  This is not the complete guide to set up your children’s book, but I believe it is a good place to start.  There are a number of good books out there on the subject and I will update this blog with a few later this week.

-Ron

Font and Paragraphing

Use a twelve point font like Times New Roman. (Courier is another acceptable option – but tends to use more room). Do not try to flag the attention of an editor by using splashy font.

Page 1 – Header information

You will want the header of the first page of your manuscript to be different than the rest of the manuscript (Note: To accomplish this in MS Word, go to File->Page Setup. Then click on the Layout tab. Check the Different First Page box. Now go to the first page of your document and put your contact information in the header block).

On the left side enter your:

    1. first and last name

 

  • street address

 

 

  • city, state and zip

 

 

  • phone number

 

 

  • Email address.

 

On the right side:

Specify your word count. Like “Word Count~ 500″. To place this statement on the first line of your header, you’ll need to set a Right Tab (Note: To do this in MS Word, click on that first line after your last name so your cursor is there. Then select from the menu Format->Tab. A pop-up window will appear. Under Tab Stop Position: enter 6″. Under Alignment, click on Right. Then click the SET button in that window. Now press the tab key on your keyboard and notice what happens. Your cursor will flush right).

Page 1 – Title your work

About half-way down the page. Enter your title in all caps. NO BOLDING. NO UNDERLINE. There is no need to put a byline since it’s assumed from the header. DO NOT PUT A COPYRIGHT on there. There is no need; your text is automatically copyrighted as soon as you write it.

Chapter Titles for Chaptered Books

If your book is chaptered, center the chapter title and write “CHAPTER ONE–CHAPTER TITLE” in all caps. Your subsequent chapters should each begin a new page, so insert a page break (Note:  To do this MS Word Select Insert-> Break. Click on Page Break).

Your story text

    • Indent paragraphs – To indent, use Tab key on your keyboard. Avoid using the space bar five times. That was the old school way of doing things before the arrival of the personal computer.

 

  • Spacing – One space is the standard now. Two spaces is used on a typewriter. So with that in mind, if you ARE using a typewriter, then follow the old rules.

 

 

  • Do not double-space (hit enter key twice) between paragraphs unless this is intentional for your story-telling.

 

Tags and Page Numbers

Starting with page two and every page thereafter a tag and a page number should appear in the header. The tag should include: Your last name, a slash and then keywords from the title. (For example: Author, Bobby’s Day Off – Page 2).  It should appear on the left side of your header.

 

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